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The population of Mongolia is at present 2.7 million people. The present yearly rate of population growth is estimated as 2.8 percent. Two thirds of the Mongolian population is below 30 years old, and two-fifths of the population is 14 years or below. Much of the population growth of Mongolia has been absorbed in urban areas. The present urban population is above one million, Ulaanbaatar having 900,000 inhabitants. However, a significant part of the urban populations still live in ger (yurt) habitations on the city peripheries. While the average population density of Mongolia is just over 1 person per sq. km, the population density of South Gobi Province is only 0.2 per sq. km. About 75 per cent of the population of Mongolia speak Khalha Mongol, the official language, while another 15 per cent speak other Mongolian languages. Ethnic minorities are mainly speakers of Turkic languages, such as Kazakh, Tuvinian, Urianhai and Hoton.

Ethnic groups: 85% Mongol, mostly Khalkha Mongol. Also 7% Turkie (mainly Kazakh), 4.6% Tungusic and 3.4% other groups. Four million Mongols live outside Mongolia.

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